Protecting Intellectual Property in the Developing World: Next Stop—Thailand

By: Cortney M. Arnold This iBrief examines the U.S. strategy for strengthening the protection of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in Southeast Asia through the use of free trade agreements (FTAs). After briefly examining the U.S. methodology for strengthening IPRs outside the U.S., this iBrief predicts that the intellectual property provisions in the final text of the U.S.-Thailand FTA, which is currently being negotiated, will be very similar to the provisions in previous FTAs that the United States has negotiated with other developing countries. Download Full Article (PDF) Cite: 2006 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 0010

Mining the Common Heritage of Our DNA: Lessons Learned From Grotius and Pardo

By: Jasper A. Bovenberg The Human Genome Project generated oceans of DNA sequence data and spurred a multinational race to grab the bounties of these oceans. In response to these DNA property grabs, UNESCO, drawing upon international law precedents addressing analogous grabs in the past, declared the Human Genome the heritage of humanity. The UNESCO Declaration provided, first, that the heritage shall not, in its natural state, give rise to financial gains and, second, that countries establish an international framework to make the benefits from genome research available to all. This iBrief will first examine Grotius’s Mare Liberum to determine whether international law precedent indeed bars the private appropriation of a common heritage. Second, the iBrief will revisit the framework developed by Pardo for the exploitation of the mineral resources of the ocean floor and analyze whether it could serve as a model for an international framework for sharing the benefits of current genome research. Download Full Article (PDF) Cite: 2006 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 0008

Unnecessary Indeterminacy: Process Patent Protection After Kinik v. ITC

By: John M. Eden In Kinik v. International Trade Commission, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit suggested in dicta that the defenses available to foreign manufacturers in infringement actions under 35 U.S.C. § 271(g) in Federal district courts do not apply to exclusion actions before the International Trade Commission. This iBrief argues that this decision is problematic for three reasons: (1) the Federal Circuit’s decision is inconsistent with the ITC’s longstanding tradition of consulting the patent statute when adjudicating exclusion actions under 19 U.S.C. § 1337, (2) the court’s suggestion that the ITC should be given broad discretion to resolve conflicts between the patent statute and the Tariff Act is at odds with the Chevron doctrine, and (3) if the ITC employs the broad discretion that Kinik confers to it by excluding more foreign art than Federal district courts could lawfully exclude under the patent statute, the enforcement of domestic patent policy in the United States could conceivably violate obligations of non-discrimination (Article 27.1) and burden-shifting (Article 34) imposed by the TRIPS Agreement. Download Full Article (PDF) Cite: 2006 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 0009

Patent Misuse in Patent Pool Licensing: From National Harrow to “The Nine No-Nos” to Not Likely

By: Daniel P. Homiller Courts and the Justice Department’s Antitrust division have become increasingly tolerant of patent licensing practices that were previously viewed with suspicion. This trend has put pressure on the doctrine of patent misuse, which arose in the 1940s as a doctrine distinct from, but closely related to, standard antitrust analysis. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit recently overturned an International Trade Commission order that held unenforceable, on the grounds of patent misuse, six patents licensed as a package by U.S. Philips Corporation. The Federal Circuit’s decision raises the question of just how much remains of the doctrine of patent misuse. Download Full Article (PDF) Cite: 2006 Duke L. & Tech. Rev. 0007